Nephrology is a specialty of medicine related to the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or kidney transplantation. Diabetes and autoimmune disease are systemic conditions that affect the kidneys and renal osteodystrophy and hypertension are systemic problems that occur as a result of kidney problems and are evaluated and treated by a nephrologist.

Nephrology concerns the diagnosis and/or treatment of kidney diseases, including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, or the care of those requiring renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients.

Patients are referred to a nephrology specialist for reasons such as acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, hematuria, proteinuria, kidney stones, hypertension, and disorders of acid/base or electrolytes.